Tieng Viet

Trang nha Quang c

Tieng Anh

 

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Nghi le Phat giao


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Suy ngh ve phng phap dch thuat kinh ien
trong tien trnh Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem
Thch Nhat T

I. Dan nhap

II. Vai mn ch Han: iem manh va yeu

III. Tieu ch cua mot ban dch

IV. Qui cach dch tong quat

V. Phep viet hoa va viet nghieng trong ban dch

VI. Vai t nen oi

VII. Noi them ve cac phong cach dch

1. Dch ngha en (Literary translation)

2. Dch giai thch (Interpretive translation)

3. Dch khai niem (Concept translation)

4. Dch chu e (Thematic translation)

VIII. Hai phng thc dch

IX. Cac tr ngai chnh trong phien dch

X. Ket luan


I. Dan nhap [^]

Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem khong ch la nhu cau can thiet ma con la chat lieu tinh than quy gia cua ngi Phat t Viet Nam, du xuat gia hay tai gia. Do v nhng kho khan khach quan cua at nc cung nh s bat ong quan iem cua cac tong phai va giao hoi Phat giao, cho en nay, nc ta van cha co mot nghi thc tung niem thuan Viet va tieu chuan. e gop phan vao viec Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem, ngi viet xin mao muoi trnh bay vai thien y ve phng phap dch thuat kinh ien va vai van e lien he khac.

II. Vay mn ch Han: iem manh va yeu [^]

Hau het cac ban dch kinh ien t tieng Han sang tieng Viet, tham ch t ch Pali sang tieng Viet van con mang am hng ch Han mot cach nang ne. Ngi Phat t oc vao cac ban kinh cua HT Thch Minh Chau va cua co HT Gii Nghiem, neu khong co mot trnh o Han hoc toi thieu, chac han kho co the lanh hoi het y t sau sac c chuyen tai trong cac thuat ng Phat hoc Han Viet. Cac ban dch ve kinh ien ai tha cua HT Thch Tr Tnh, HT. Thch Tr Quang v.v… cung nh cac ban dch A-ham cua HT Thch Thien Sieu, HT Thch Thanh T va cua Phat hoc vien Hue Nghiem lai con nang ch Han hn na.

Co nhieu ly do e giai thch s anh hng Han hoc mot cach tap the nay. Th nhat, kinh sach Phat giao c dch ra tieng Viet hau het c tien hanh trong giai oan ma tieng Viet cha c nh hnh va pho bien rong rai nh hien nay. Ke en, v la phong trao dch thuat kinh ien trong giai oan khi iem, cac bac ton tuc cua chung ta a khong co u cac phng tien tham khao, oi chieu cac ban dch trc o, khi can thiet, nh hien gi. Hn na, van phong ch Han co the giup cho quy dch gia co the chuyen ta y kinh mot cach co ong ma dan tr may chuc nam trc cung co the hieu c de dang do Han hoc con thong dung trong quan chung tr thc.

Tuy nhien at cac ban dch may mi nam trc trong boi canh hien nay, ngi oc tung kinh ien se gap khong t cac kho khan khi phai tiep can mot ban van kinh ien qua nang thuat ng ch Han. anh rang co hn 60 phan tram yeu to ch Han trong ngon ng tieng Viet, chung ta van co the tm ra cac ch Viet tng ng hoac t nhat cac ch Han a c Viet hoa e thay the cac ch Han kho hieu va khong con thong dung trong quan chung.

Ngoai viec dien at suc tch, co am ieu em tai, cac ban dch nang am hng ch Han ch co the phuc vu cho mot so oi tng nhat nh, va do o, se xa ri tap the quan chung, va hn na, khong co li cho tien trnh tu hoc cua nhieu lp ngi. o la cha noi en viec cac ban dch nang ch Han hoac cac kinh ien e nguyen am Han Viet a dan en viec than thanh hoa kinh ien (do khong hieu c y kinh), dan en nan bien kinh ien thanh oi tng cau nguyen va c Phat thanh mot v than linh ban phc, xa ri vi ban chat li Phat day.

Phai cong nhan rang co nhieu kho khan trong viec chon cac t ng va thuat ng thuan tieng Viet e thay the cac thuat ng Phat hoc bang ch Han a quen thuoc vi gii hoc ng Phat giao. T duy, chat xam, s sang tao va thi gian la cac yeu to giup chung ta co the tao ra cac thuat ng Phat hoc thuan Viet mot cach thanh cong. Mot kho khan khac na la cac t ng va thuat ng mi nay chac han se gay ra hien tng choi tai, kho nghe, do ngi oc tung kinh ien a quen thuoc cac thuat ng ch Han t nhieu nam qua trong cuoc i cua mnh.

Mot cong viec tuy co nhieu kho khan nhng khong phai la khong co giai phap. Theo thien y cua ngi viet cac ban dch kinh sach Phat giao trong tng lai nen tan dung toi a cac t ng tieng Viet thuan tuy e dien ta cac y tng Phat hoc. V du, ta nen dung cum t "ba ngoi Bau" e thay the t "Tam bao," nen dung "trang thai thien th nhat, th hai, th ba, th t" e thay the t "s thien, nh thien, tam thien, t thien," va nen dung "ba kho tang kinh ien Phat giao" e thay the thuat ng "Tam tang," v.v… Mac du cac t mi nay co dai dong hn cac thuat ng Han nhng chung co the giup cho ngi oc de dang hieu c y tng cha tai trong kinh sach.

Ke en quy dch gia co the van dung phng phap "thay the" trong khi dch, ngha la dung mot t ng ch Han a c Viet hoa, pho bien trong dan gian e thay the cac thuat ng ch Han a khong con quen thuoc vi quan chung. V du ta nen dung cum t "ba tnh chat cua thc tai" e thay the thuat ng "tam phap an," "bon chan ly cua cuoc i" e thay the "t dieu e," dung "con ng thanh gom tam yeu to" e thay the "bat chanh ao," dung "bay yeu to a en giac ngo" e thay the "that giac chi" v.v… Cac t ng c in am trong cac cum t e ngh ben tren eu la cac t ng Han Viet, tuy nhien chung a c ngi Viet Nam s dung quen thuoc nh nhng ch thuan Viet, se giup chung ta thay the thanh cong cac thuat ng nang ch Han t trc en gi.

Noi tom lai, cong viec Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem noi rieng va phien dch kinh sach Phat giao noi chung, co the c thc hien bang nhieu cach, trong o ba yeu to sau ay la can thiet nhat. Th nhat, chung ta nen dch ngha toan bo cac thuat ng phap so bat au bang "nhat, nh, tam, t, v.v…" thanh cac thuat ng tieng Viet bat au bang "mot, hai, ba, bon v.v…" Ke en, co gang chon loc cac t ng thuan Viet e thay the toan bo cac thuan ng ch Han. Va th ba la thay the thuat ng ch Han kho hieu bang cac thuat ng ch Han khac a c Viet hoa. Co nh vay th viec oc tung kinh cua ngi Viet Nam mi de dang va thu hoach nhieu li ch.

III. Tieu ch cua mot ban dch [^]

Di ay, chung toi xin a ra vai tieu ch e phien dch mot van ban kinh ien Phat giao.

1. Chuyen dch chnh xac noi dung nguyen tac, khong them that nhng y tng khong co cha tai trong noi dung. Tnh chnh xac (accuracy) hay trung thanh (faithfulness to the original) vi van ban goc c xem la tieu ch hang au cua phien dch noi chung, nhat la kinh ien ao Phat. Phong cach dch thuat nay ng vi phong cach dch theo hang (line-by-line translation). Ngha la khong nen ao v tr "qua xa" cua nhng cau ben di len tren va ngc lai. Cach dch nay giup ngi oc co the kiem chng bang phng phap oi chieu van ban mot cach de dang. Nen lu y, phong cach nay khac vi cach dch ngha en (literary translation), ch au ngha o, hay dch "ch theo ch," ma bo quen ngha cua toan bo ng canh cua chung.

2. Cau truc va ngon ng bieu at phai ro rang, sang sua (stylistic elegance) va thuan Viet. S ro rang, trong sang trong phong cach bieu at la tieu ch quan trong bac nh trong phng phap dch thuat kinh ien Phat giao. Mot ban dch trung thanh nhng neu thieu i phong cach dien at ro rang, de hieu se anh mat i muc ch phuc vu cua no. Phong cach dch nay oi hoi nha dch thuat phai thong thao mot cach nhuan nhuyen van pham va ngon t dch thuat, ay la tieng Viet. Tranh lam dung viec vai mn qua nhieu thuat ng Han Viet, ngoai tr cac thuat ng nay a c Viet hoa, tc a c quan chung s dung nh tieng Viet. Tuy nhien, s ro rang ve van phong phai c i song hanh vi tnh chnh xac. Mot ban dch du co hay ve van phong nhng thieu tnh trung thanh vi nguyen ban th khong con g tai hai cho bang, va do o c xem la ban dch toi nhat.

3. Cac oan trung tung hay thi ke nen chuyen thanh van van theo the th Viet Nam nh luc bat hay song that luc bat hay the ngu ngon. V muc ch cua cac oan trung tung la nham tom tat y cua oan kinh van dai tren va giup cho ngi oc nh c y kinh de dang, nen chuyen the chung sang the th Viet Nam la thch hp nhat.

Noi tom lai, mot ban dch tieu chuan trc nhat phai chuyen tai mot cach trung thanh y tng cua van ban goc, vi mot van phong ro rang, de hieu, ngi oc khong can phai tra t ien cung co the hieu c y tng cha tai trong no. Noi khac hn, "dch thuat la nghe thuat tao ra trong ngon ng dch (receptor language) cac tng ong mang tnh t nhien nhat (the closest natural equivalent) so vi thong iep cua ngon ng c dch hay ngon ng nguon (source language), trc nhat ve mat y ngha, ke en ve mat van phong."

IV. Qui cach dch tong quat [^]

Co hai trng phai phien dch kinh ien quen thuoc trong gii Phat giao Trung Quoc noi rieng Phat giao the gii noi chung, o la phong cach dch thuat cua ngai Cu-ma-la-thap (344-413) va ngai Huyen Trang.

Phong cach dch thuat cua ngai Huyen Trang co the c thau tom trong phng phap "ngu chung bat phien" (nam loai nen e nguyen ng ma khong dch), trong o, phan "khong dch nhan danh va a danh tieng nc ngoai [Sanskrit va Pali]" va "ch nen phien am ma khong dch ngha cac thuat ng co nhieu ngha [v du ch phap (dharma // dhamma)] la hai ieu ang lu y nhat. Neu ngi Trung Quoc co phong cach "Trung Quoc hoa" tat ca cac yeu to ngoai ng, ngay ca nhan danh va a danh cung c chuyen ng ra tieng Trung Hoa, th ngi Viet Nam khi vay mn ngon ng cua ho, khong bat chc phong cach oc lap nay, trai lai s dung am Han Viet, nen khong co li ch ma con gap nhieu tr ngai cho gii quan chung Viet Nam. Van phong cua ngai Huyen Trang la van phong bac hoc, khong tnh lc cac oan trung lap trong khi dch, nen gay nhieu kho khan cho ngi oc nhat la phng dien am van cua ban dch. Do vay ma cong trnh phien dch cua ngai du noi tieng khap the gii va a i vao van hoc va ien anh Trung Quoc nhng lai t c gii Phat giao Trung Quoc, Nhat Ban, Trieu Tien va Viet Nam oc tung trong cac khoa le hang ngay.

Ngai Cu-ma-la-thap du la ngi An o nhng do song lau nam tai Trung Quoc va dch trng cua ngai co nhieu nha van, nha th, nha ngon ng hoc, triet gia, nha van hoa v.v… cong tac, nen cac ban dch mang ten ngai co mot van phong ac biet, trong sang, gay gon va rat thch hp vi gii oc tung kinh ien Trung Quoc. Phong cach dch thuat cua ngai co the tom lc nh sau: (1) Chuyen ng ra tieng Trung Quoc mot cach toi a cac thuat ng Phat hoc Sanskrit, (2) S dung the van ngon "bon ch" (t t) e tao ng ieu ac biet cho ban dch (tuy nhien phong cach t t nay khong thch hp trong tieng Viet, do v tieng Viet co mot cau truc ng ieu khac vi tieng Trung Quoc), (3) Tnh lc nhng oan van co tnh cach mo ta canh tr, a d, tha hoi va nhat la cac oan van trung lap (v du trong ban Sanskrit cua kinh A-di-a ghi chep u 10 phng Phat tan than viec xien dng phap niem Phat nh thien nh "nhat tam bat loan", ban dch cua ngai Cu-ma-la-thap a tnh lc het 4 phng, o la ong nam, tay nam, ong bac va tay bac, ma khong he anh hng en y t cua mach van). Vi phong cach dch thuat nay, cac ban dch kinh ien cua ngai a tr nen pho bien nhat, c s dung oc tung nhieu nhat trong cac ban dch kinh ien cua Trung Quoc t trc en gi.

ut ket kinh nghiem t hai phong cach dch thuat tieu bieu tren, ngi viet xin e ngh mot so tieu ch cho cac ban dch cac kinh ien tieng Viet:

-- Ch phien am ma khong dch cac nhan danh va a danh tieng nc ngoai (Sanskrit, Pali, Trung Quoc, Tay Tang, Nhat Ban v.v…)

-- Thay the cac thuat ng Phat hoc ch Han bang cac thuat ng thuan tieng Viet.

-- Ch dung ch Han trong trng hp tieng Viet khong co t tng ng e dien at.

-- Gi lai cac yeu to ch Han a c Viet hoa hoac a tr nen quen thuoc va de hieu trong dan gian.

-- Cac thuat ng Phat hoc bat au bang phap so phai c dch ra tieng Viet.

-- Van dung thuat ng cua cac nganh hoc hien ai (nh triet hoc, xa hoi hoc, tam ly hoc, khoa hoc v.v…) e chuyen ng cac thuat ng Phat hoc co cung noi dung.

-- Tnh lc cac oan, cau, cum t (1) mang tnh cach giai thch ve a danh, (2) liet ke trung lap, (3) tng thuat trung lap, (4) mang tnh liet ke trung lap ch them mot vai t mi va cac oan tha hoi va tra li trung lap.

-- Dch mach van theo cau truc van pham va van phong tieng Viet.

-- at lai cac ten kinh theo noi dung chu e cua chung. Cac ten kinh co cha t "du" nen dch la "kinh du ngon …" e y nghia cua kinh c de hieu hn.

-- Phan loai va anh so th t cho tng y chnh cua bai kinh.

V. Phep viet hoa va viet nghieng trong ban dch [^]

-- Viet hoa ch au va khong gach noi cac am con lai: Ap dung cho cac t ch chc sac, chc danh trong ao.

Vd: Hoa thng, Thng toa, ai c, Tru tr, Vien chu, Phng trng v.v…

-- Viet hoa ch au va gach noi cac am con lai: Ap dung cho cac nhan danh, a danh va thuat ng c chuyen am (transliteration) t tieng nc ngoai nh Sanskrit, Pali, Tay Tang (Ngoai tr ch Han).

Vd: Thch-ca-mau-ni, A-nan-a; Ma-kiet-a, Ca-ty-la-ve; A-ty-at-ma, niet-ban v.v…

-- Viet hoa toan bo va khong dung gach noi: Ap dung cho cac t ch ten ngi (Phat, Bo-tat, A-la-han va ngi thng), ten at (nc, tnh thanh, quan huyen, x s, nui song, ng pho) va ten chua thap co nguon goc tieng Viet hay Han-Viet.

Vd: Phat Nhien ang, Bo-tat Quan The Am, Tran Nhan Tong, nc Nepal, thanh pho Ho Ch Minh, nui Pho a, chua Giac Ngo v.v…

-- Phep viet hoa ten tac pham: oi vi ten cua bai kinh, ten cua cac chng, pham, sach, ta nen viet hoa toan bo cac ch, ngoai tr gii t va lien t. Gii t va lien t ch c viet hoa khi chung ng au trong ten tac pham. Neu cac ten kinh sach co cha cac t ch ten ngi, ten at va thuat ng co nguon goc tieng nc ngoai th luat viet hoa se c ap dung nh a neu muc 2 cua phan nay.

Vd: Kinh Hoa Sen Chanh Phap, Luan A-ty-at-ma, Luan Giai ve Thien (Thien Luan), Ve Chuyen Song Chet v.v…

-- Phep viet nghieng: Ap dung cho cac nhan danh, a danh, thuat ng co nguon goc nc ngoai, va ten hay ta e va tieu muc cua cac tac pham. (Phep viet nghieng nay c ap dung cho cac phan 2, 3 va 4 neu tren).

Vd: Varanasi, Sakyamuni, Agama, Nikaya, Duy Thc Tam Thap Tung v.v…

VI. Vai t nen oi [^]

Do v chu anh hng cua ngon ng co ai An o, cac t ch cho con ngi trong kinh ien thng c dung vi nam-tnh. Tng t, khai niem ty-kheo trong cac kinh ien Phat giao khong phai ch danh rieng cho ho ma con c dung chung cho cac ty-kheo-ni va c s Phat t. Tuy nhien cung co mot so trng hp ac biet, mot so bai kinh ch danh rieng cho cac v ty-kheo, va do o, khai niem ty-kheo trong trng hp nay khong phai ch chung cho toan the thnh chung trong phap hoi. Tren c s cua hai ng canh nay, ngi viet xin e ngh cach chuyen ng khai niem ty-kheo tuy theo mach van nh sau:

-- oi vi trng hp cac bai kinh danh rieng cho gii tu s, khai niem "ty-kheo" trong thanh ng "nay cac ty-kheo" nen c dch thanh: (1) "cac e t xuat gia," hoac (2) "ngi tam cau ao hanh" (lay ngha bong cua t khat s). Nh vay thanh ng "nay cac ty-kheo" trong trng hp kinh Giao Huan Cuoi Cung (kinh Di giao) v.v… nen oi thanh "nay cac e t xuat gia."

-- oi vi cac ng canh ma t ty-kheo c dung ai dien cho toan the e t Phat th nen dch thanh: (1) "Nay cac v" hay (2) "Nay cac Phat t." V du khai niem ty-kheo trong cau sau ay ro rang khong phai ch rieng cho cac ty-kheo tang ma ch chung cho tat ca moi ngi: "Nay cac ty-kheo, ta tuyen bo rang, s chu y la nghiep. Do co s chu y, nen co cac hanh ong cua than the, li noi va suy t." Do o, nen oi thanh "nay cac v / quy v." Cach thay oi nay nham giup cho ngi oc kinh co cam giac rang c Phat ang noi kinh nay cho mnh, nh o, ho co the chu y nhieu hn trong khi oc tung.

-- Tng t, oi vi cac kinh ien ai tha, thanh ng "nay cac thien nam t, thien n nhn" hay "nay cac thien nam tn n" nen oi thanh "nay cac Phat t" hay "nay cac v," e cho ng canh oi thoai tr nen thuan Viet va an tng hn.

-- Ngoai ra, trong mot so kinh ien ai tha, thuat ng "nay thien nam" hay "nay thien nam t" thng c cac v bo-tat s dung e xng ho vi mot v bo-tat (thng la mi phat tam) nen oi thanh "nay ton gia" hay "nay ai c" tuy theo ng canh. Neu v bo-tat mi phat tam o la c s th ch nen dung "nay ton gia" e thay the, trong khi neu v ay la mot ngi xuat gia th co the dung ca hai trng hp: ton gia hay ai c.

VII. Noi them ve cac phong cach dch [^]

Co nhieu phong cach dch thuat khac nhau, tuy theo s trng va s thch cua ngi dch. Ngi viet xin neu ra bon phong cach dch thuat chnh, e tren c s o, e ngh mot phong cach dch thuat phu hp vi kinh ien Phat giao:

1. Dch ngha en (literary translation) [^]

Tr ngai ln nhat cua phong cach dch ngha en la ngi oc khong hieu c y tng cua mach van ban dch, du ho rat thong thao ve ngon ng dch. Cach dch ngha en se bo qua y tng cua toan mach van, va nguy hai hn la se lam cho mach van trong ban dch thieu tnh mach lac va oi luc khong ung vi van phong ngon ng c chuyen dch. Neu van pham va cach dien at cua 2 ngon ng la khac nhau, cach dch nay se lam oc gia khong hieu c g y tng cua ban dch, do dch ch au ngha o.

V du: T Bhik.su (Sanskrit) hay bhikkhu (Pali) co ngha en la "ngi hanh khat, ngi an xin" thng c phan ln cac dch gia dch la "khat s" trong ch Han, hay slo"ng-ba co ngha tng trong tieng Tay Tang. Mot so dch gia Trung Quoc chon cach phien am (transliteration) e tranh s choi tai trong ngon ng me e cua mnh. Tac pham Mahavyupatti, t ien thuat ng oi chieu Sanskrit va Tay Tang, a dch ngha bong cua t nay thanh "dge slong" co ngha la "ngi tm kiem hay tam cau c hanh" (virtue-seeker), mot t dch rat ep va de thng.

T "papa" thng c dch ra tieng Anh "sin" trong khi khai niem nay trong Phat giao ch cho cac hanh vi (kamma//karma) bat thien (akusala) mang lai ket qua xau cho mnh va ngi; khac hoan toan vi khai niem toi trong "tong toi" cua Thien chua giao.

2. Dch giai thch (Interpretive translation) [^]

Trong cach dch nay, dch gia khong bam sat ngha en cua mach van, nhng lai dch theo cach giai thch ngha cua chung thanh mot mach van dai hn, hay bang cac thuat ng co san trong nen van hoa cua ngon ng dch. ay cung chnh la phng phap dch cua rat nhieu dch gia au tien cua Trung Quoc, bang cach vai mn cac thuat t cua ao giao, e chuyen tai t tng Phat hoc. Ca-diep Ma-ang va Truc Phap Lan la hai v dch gia au tien s dung phong cach nay. Cach dch giai thch nay, trong mot so trng hp, thng i xa y nguyen tac, du co giup cho oc gia de dang hieu y tng cua van ban. Cach dch nay khong nen ap dung thai qua. No ch nen ng dung trong mot so trng hp nhat nh ma thoi.

3. Dch khai niem (Concept translation) [^]

e thc hien phong cach dch nay, dch gia can phai nam that vng y tng cua ca van ban goc va van ban dch. Tuy nhien cach dch nay co the co kha nang i xa van ban goc, va co the dan ti s bien dang cua van ban goc. Ke en, no co the lam mat i nhieu thong tin cua van ban goc, do bo qua (skipping) boi canh t nguyen cua thuat ng (etymological background of terminology). oi vi cac thanh ng va thuat ng co ien tch, s mat mat se de thay hn. Ngha tiem an (implicit meaning) va ngha noi (explicit meaning) cha ng trong thanh ng ien tch de dang b bo quen trong chuyen dch.

4. Dch chu e (Thematic translation) [^]

ay la cach dch nhan manh en chu e cua van ban goc, hn la y ngha cua cac thanh to trong mach van. Khi nhan manh en chu e, ngi dch de dang bo qua cac yeu to vi te cua mach van. Chang han khi dch "nhan than nan ac" thanh "lam c than ngi la kho" hay "tai sanh kiep ngi la kho" la cach dch chu e. ay, con ngi la trong tam cua mach van. Dch nh vay se dan en cac van de nh: neu than ngi la kho, th tai sao dan so the gii ngay cang tang? S tang dan so con ngi co phai do cac loai chung sanh khac biet tu tap hanh tot va nh o c tai sanh lam ngi hay khong?

***

Noi tom lai, moi phong cach co iem manh va iem nhc, khong co phong cach dch thuat nao la hoan hao ca. Do o, tuy theo ng canh hay mach van cua van ban kinh ma chung ta uyen chuyen chon phong cach dch cho thch hp. S van dung mot cach uyen chuyen va tng thch cac phong cach dch thuat tren co the giup cho dch gia tranh c cac thieu sot va lam cho noi dung cua ban dch khong ch phan anh trung thanh van ban nguyen tac ma con mang mot van phong thuan ban a, e giup cho ngi oc tiep can de dang va hieu qua hn.

VIII. Hai phng thc dch [^]

Mac du co nhieu phong cach dch thuat nhng tu trung ch co 2 phng thc dch thuat la (1) dch mot mnh khong co hp tac cua chuyen gia ngon ng goc, va (2) dch vi s hp tac cua cac chuyen gia ban a ve ngon ng goc (Collaborative Translation).

Phng thc dch th hai la hnh thc lam viec nhom (teamwork), bao gom cac chuyen gia cua ngon ng c dch va ngon ng dch. Cac chuyen gia ngon ng c dch se giup ban dch co c tnh chnh xac. Cac chuyen gia cua ngon ng dch se giup cho van phong dch sang sua, nhe nhang, mach lac, de hieu va co tnh van hoc nghe thuat cao, va nhat la ngi oc khong can tra t ien van co the hieu c y kinh. ay la cach dch ly tng nhat trong hai phng thc. Phng thc nay se mang lai tnh chnh xac (accuracy) cua van ban goc, va tnh chat lng cua ngon ng dch, nhat la ve phng dien ro rang, sang sua (clarity).

Phng thc nay a c ngai Cu-ma-la-thap phoi hp nhuan nhuyen vi cac cong s cua nhieu nha van th, triet hoc ngi Trung quoc, cho ra i nhieu dch pham bat hu.

T xa xa, phng thc nay cung c cac dch gia Tay Tang phoi hp vi cac chuyen gia An o vao nhng thi ky phien dch s khai cua van hoc tam tang Tay Tang. Nh vay ma cac ban dch kinh ien cua Tay Tang rat trung thanh vi ban nguyen tac Sanskrit nhng cung rat gan gui vi phong tuc tap quan va van hoa Tay Tang. Lama Chimpa cho chung ta biet rang khong mot ban dch nao trong ba kho tang kinh ien cua Tay tang (Tibetan Kanjur va Tanjur: bao gom 330 volumes, cha hn 5000 tac pham oc lap) t tieng Sanskrit ma khong co s hp tac nhuan nhuyen cua t nhat ba hoc gia: mot v cao tang An (tinh thong Sanskrit), v dch gia Tay Tang (tinh thong van hoa Tay Tang) va mot v nhuan van phong. Nhiem vu cua v cao tang An la nham cat ngha va giai thch y tng cua mach van cho v dch gia Tay Tang (lotsawa), ngi dch y kinh van ra tieng Tay Tang. Ban dch se c v nhuan van (reviser-translator/shu-chen-gyi lotsawa) chu trach nhiem hieu nh va nhuan van. Rat tiec cho en ngay nay, cac phong trao va ca nhan dch thuat kinh ien Phat giao ra tieng Viet a khong co s phoi hp can thiet nay.

Ngay nay, cac kinh sach Tay Tang a ang c Vien Tay Tang hoc Trung ng (Central Institute of Tibetan Studies, Sarnath, An o) phien dch tr lai tieng Sanskrit e phuc hoi mot nen van hoc Phat giao a b that lac va mat goc, ch v ngi ta tin tng rang cac ban dch Tay Tang rat trung thanh vi ban Sanskrit va do o viec dch ngc tr lai co the mot phan nao lam song lai nen van hoc ai tha nay.

IX. Cac tr ngai chnh trong phien dch [^]

Co rat nhieu tr ngai cho cac cong trnh phien dch kinh ien Phat giao ra tieng Viet, chang han nh nhan s, a iem tap trung, ngan quy va cac phng tien tham khao, nghien cu can thiet khac, nh th vien, sach v, cac t ien chuyen nganh va t ien lien he. Cac kho khan khac co the ke o la:

-- Yeu cau cua mot dch gia: ngi dch kinh ien Phat giao can phai thong thao hai nguon ngon ng, ngon ng van ban goc (Sanskrit, Pali), ngon ng tham khao (tieng Tay Tang, tieng Trung Quoc) va ngon ng dch thuat (tieng Viet). Ke en, nha dch thuat kinh ien Phat giao con phai thong thao ve t tng hay triet ly cua noi dung cua van ban goc (bao gom triet hoc va ton giao An o co ai) va co kha nang dien at chung bang ngon ng dch.

-- S khac nhau ve cu phap (syntax) va ng ngha hoc (semantic) cua ngon ng dch va ngon ng c dch la van e ln nhat trong phien dch.

-- S khong ro rang cua van ban goc (textual ambiguity) la he qua cua s khac nhau ve cu phap (syntax) va ng ngha hoc (semantic) gia hai ngon ng, co the dan en tnh trang hieu sai va dch sai van ban do on mo. S khong ro rang cua ngon ng goc bao gom tnh a t loai cua mot t va tnh a ngha cua chung. Hai yeu to nay thng dan ti viec hieu sai y tng cua van ban goc.

-- Trong bat ky hai ngon ng nao cung co tnh trang khong the co cac thuat ng tng ng that s. Ngha la co nhieu y tng co trong ngon ng nay lai khong tm thay trong ngon ng kia, va ngc lai. Trong trng hp o, ngi dch phai co gang tm t gan ngha nhat e chuyen ng va nh kem theo mot chu thch ve ngha t nguyen cua thuat ng goc, e ngi oc co the hnh dung mot cach tng oi.

V du, khai niem "triet hoc" (philosophy) cua phng Tay khong co t tng ng trong ngon ng Pali va Sanskrit cua Phat giao. Khai niem "phap" (dhamma/dharma), "Phat" (Buddha) va Bo-tat (Bodhisattva) v.v… khong co t tng ng trong tieng Viet, Anh, Hoa va bat ky tieng nao tren the gii. S vai mn t cua hai nen van hoa khac nhau ma khong chu dan boi canh t nguyen cua chung se dan en s hieu lam ang trach. S khac nhau ve van hoa dan en s khac nhau can ban ve ngon ng va y tng cha tai trong ngon ng.

-- S ri rac (disparity) va thieu nhat quan (inconsistencey) la van e nghiem trong cua dch thuat, ma ngi dch kinh ien Phat giao can lu y. Tr ngai nay thng thay trong mot tac pham nhieu tap vi nhieu dch gia khac nhau. Ket qua la, mot thuat ng trong ngon ng goc lai c dch ra thanh nhieu t khac nhau, lam cho ngi oc lan lon va khong biet au la y tng chnh yeu, va t dch nao la chnh xac va ang tin cay.

-- Bat ong ve tieu chuan cua cac thuat ng (lack of standardization of terminology). Viec tao ra cac t mi (coining a new term/word) khong co trong ca hai ngon ng goc va ngon ng c dch la cong viec rat can thiet nhng vo cung kho khan. Cong viec nay nen c s ho tr cua cac cc chu, e ngi oc de dang tiep nhan. V du, khai niem "delusion" trong tieng Anh khong chuyen tai het y ngha cua ch "vo minh" (moha) hay (avidya) cua Phat giao. Do o, neu khong giai thch, ngi oc se hieu sai hay hieu ap at, do chu anh hng cua nen van hoa tieng Anh, hn la van hoa Phat giao.

-- Phien am (Transliteration). e tranh cac khuyet iem trong viec phien dch khong het ngha cua mot t a ngha, cac dch gia nen chon cach phien am ma khong dch ngha. Cach nay lai phat sanh cac kho khan ve am tiet hoc (phonetics) va do o co the dan en viec oc va phien khong chnh xac t goc. Viec phien am Han Viet trong cac ban dch kinh ien tieng Viet la mot ien hnh nhat ve van e nay.

X. Ket luan [^]

Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem hay cong viec phien dch kinh ien t tieng Sanskrit, Pali, Trung Quoc v.v… sang tieng Viet la mot cong trnh oi hoi en s ong gop cua nhieu ngi ve nhieu phng dien, chang han nh nguon chat xam, ngan quy, a iem, phng tien khao cu, dch thuat va an loat v.v… Theo tinh than duyen khi "cai nay co nen cai kia co" cua ao Phat th moi van e eu co giai phap toan hao cua no. Ngi viet mong rang cac bac lanh ao Phat giao, cac to chc va giao hoi Phat giao trong va ngoai nc, cac t vien va cac c s giao duc Phat giao nen quan tam ve van e nay, bang cach thong bao, chieu mo nhan tai va phan bo cong viec mot cach hp ly cho s nghiep Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem va phien dch kinh ien ra tieng Viet.

Co nh vay, quan chung Phat t Viet Nam se khong con no le ngon ng ch Han trong viec dien at t tng Phat hoc, va nhat la se co the trnh bay t tng Phat hoc mot cach chnh xac, mach lac bang ngon ng me e cua mnh. Noi khac hn, cong trnh Viet hoa nghi thc tung niem va phien dch kinh ien ra tieng Viet mot cach tieu chuan se giup cho ngi Viet Nam hieu c Phat va ao Phat hn, e ngi Viet Nam "song" thong iep t bi va tr tue cua c Phat mot cach co hieu qua hn, va sau cung e thang hoa i song tam linh va ao c cua ngi Viet Nam va nc Viet Nam ung vi tinh than cao thng cua li Phat day. Trong niem hy vong va niem vui o, ngi viet knh mong cong trnh nay sm c thc hien va a vao s dung tren toan quoc va nhng ni co cong ong ngi Viet sinh song tren khap the gii.



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Cap nhat ngay : 01-11-2001


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