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Luan an Tien s Quoc gia Phap:

Van hoc cua cac nha
Nhan the luan trong Phat giao Nguyen thuy

The Literature of the Personalists of Early Buddhism

Tac gia Thch Thien Chau
Tran Tuan Man oc

 

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Ba trc cua tap luan an

 

Thang 3.1997, vien Nghien cu Phat hoc Viet nam va an hanh tac pham Anh ng, The Literature of the Personalists of Early Buddhism (Van hoc cua cac nha Nhan the luan trong Phat giao Nguyen thuy).

ay la ban dch cua Sara Boin-Webb t nguyen ban Phap ng "La litterature des personnalistes du Bouddhisme Ancien" luan an Tien s Quoc gia ve Van hoc va Khoa hoc Nhan van do hoa thng Thch Thien Chau thc hien va e trnh tai ai hoc Sorbonne Nouvelle (Paris III) nam 1977. (1)

Luan an minh hoa, phan tch, nhan nh va he thong hoa hoc thuyet Nhan the luan (Pudgalavada), mot hoc thuyet xuat hien khoang 200 nam sau khi c Phat nhap Niet ban va c pho bien phat trien suot hn 10 the ky. Qua o, khi t trng phai Vatsputrya va cac trng phai ke tiep nh Sammitya, Dharmottarya, Bhadrayaniya, Sandagarika..., cac nha Nhan the luan (Pudgalavadin) a no lc nghien cu, trch dan t giao ly chnh thong cua c Phat va a ra nhng quan iem, nhng giai thch ve s hien hu cua mot "nhan the" (pudgala) nh mot thc the ton tai bat bien trong moi chung sanh. Hoc thuyet c s ung ho cua ong ao gii hoc Phat nhng mat khac, lai b ch trch, b phe phan gay gat t ong ao nhng ngi khac, nhat la nhng nha Thng toa bo (Theravadin) va Nhat thiet hu bo (Sarvastivadin). Nhng ngi phan bac cho rang Nhan the luan trai vi tinh than Vo nga cua Phat giao, tham ch co ngi cho rang Nhan the luan lam roi ram, lam h hoai giao ly cua c Phat. ap lai nhng cong kch, cac nha Nhan the luan a co gang chng minh rang "Nhan the" khong phai la "Nga" (Atman) theo nh a so quan niem rang "Nhan the luan" khong he trai nghch vi hoc thuyet Vo nga cua Phat giao.

Nhng ong tnh va nhng phe bac Nhan the luan van tiep tuc trong nhieu the ky va van e xem ra van cha nga ngu. en khi van hoc Nhan the luan khong con c trien khai them (the ky XII) th van e van bo ngo, du rang sau o va mai cho en ngay nay, thnh thoang van e lai c khi len, lam khi thieu nhng trch dan tai lieu trc tiep va cu the. Hau qua la Nhan the luan b dien dch khong ung, b phe phan thieu can c. S d nh vay la v cac sach v, t lieu ve Nhan the luan hau het a b that lac, mat mat, ch con mot so rat t nhng nguon gian tiep, nhat la t cac tac pham oi nghch vi Nhan the luan.

Chon loc c gan 160 tac pham t kinh ien Nguyen thuy en cac t lieu, van ban Han, Phan, Pali, Tay tang ng cung nh cac cong trnh nghien cu cua nhieu hoc gia ong Tay xa va nay, hoa thng Thch Thien Chau a lan do, oi chieu sap xep cac noi dung mot cach he thong, khoa hoc va sang tao e no lc tm ra y ngha chan thc cua Nhan the luan. Bon tac pham Han van sau ay c xem la nhng can c quan trong nhat :

1. Tam Phap o luan (Tridharmakasastra) do ngai Sn Hien dch nam 391, trnh bay mot he thong cac iem c ban cua hoc thuyet Nhan the luan qua cac bo A ham.

2. T A ham mo Sao Giai do ngai Kim Hien soan, co le cung goc vi Tam Phap o luan v co noi dung tng t. Khong biet tac pham c soan vao t luc nao, nhng ban dch cua ngai Kumarabodhi c thc hien nam 392.

3. Tam di e bo luan ( Sammitiyanikayasastra), khuyet danh tac gia va dch gia, co le thuoc i Tan (385-431). Tac pham trnh bay ve mot thc the bat diet.

4. Luat Nh Thap Nh Minh Lieu Luan, gom 22 bai ke giai thch ve luat vi nhng khai niem c ban ve luat tang (Vinayanipitaka). Tac gia la Buddhatrata (?), ngi dch la Paramartha (500-569).

Sau ay la ba nhan nh c ban khien cac nha Nhan the luan chu trng co mot "nhan the" (pudgala) trong moi chung sanh :

1. Ve Ngu uan, phai co mot cai g o khac hn s tap hp cua sac, tho, tng, hanh, thc e tao thanh con ngi. Phai co mot yeu to ket hp cac qua trnh song cua mot ngi, o la tnh tng tuc trong dien bien nhan qua. a co tnh tng tuc th phai co chu the cua tnh tng tuc ay. Chu the ay chnh la "nhan the".

2. Ve y ngha Luan hoi, "Nhan the" la mot khang nh s noi ket qua kh, hien tai va v lai. ay la tnh tng tuc cua mot ngi, khien ngi ay van la ngi ay. No nh mot dong nc tam vat ly chay suot t qua kh en hien tai va en v lai. "Nhan the" nhan lay qua bao ve hanh ong cua mot ngi. "Nhan the" la "ly do hien hu" (raison d'etre) cua thien hanh.

3. Ve y ngha tch diet, "Nhan the" la cu canh cua s chng ngo, giai thoat cua ch Phat va ch A la han. "Nhan the" chnh la con ngi giai thoat toi thng vay.

Luan an day tren hai tram trang ch c nho (cha ke li ta cua Giao s Andre Bareau va li noi au cua tac gia), khi t nhng phan tch lch s cac trng phai, phan tch van hoc triet hoc, co khi rat chi li cho en tng cau ke, oan ke, tham ch en tng t ng (v du t Nhan the pudgala, oi chieu vi cac t nhan, ca nhan, linh hon, nga, sinh the..., purusa, pums, atman, jiva, satva...) qua cac y ngha thong thng va chuyen biet ; e roi neu ro hoc thuyet Nhan the luan va 15 e tai phu ve hu the bat diet, ve 12 loai tr trong kien ao, ve gii, cong c, ve tnh bat nh cua phap tng, ve Niet ban, cac sinh thu.

Xuyen qua luan an, tac gia neu ro quan iem Nhan the luan :

1. Xac nh co s hien hu cua mot "Nhan the" nh la phap bat diet (avipranasadharma), ong thi bac bo nhng lap luan cua oan diet luan (Ucchedadrsti) va Vnh cu luan (Sasvatadrsti).

2. "Nhan the" khong ong nhat vi Ngu uan, cung khong khac Ngu uan.

3. "Nhan the" phu hp vi hoc thuyet Trung ao cua c Phat.

4. "Nhan the" khong trai ngc vi hoc thuyet Vo nga cua c Phat.

Co le tac gia, qua luan an, muon e ngh ngi oc co mot cai nhn khach quan, vo t, rong rai va ung an hn ve Nhan the luan, xem ay la mot dien dch tch cc ve Phat phap, giong nh cach dien dch cua cac nha ai tha t giao ly Nguyen thuy. c nh vay th Phat giao cang tr nen phong phu, linh ong, xng ang la mot ton giao, mot triet hoc ln vao bac nhat cua nhan loai.

(1) a- ban Phap ng "La litterature des personnalistes du Bouddhisme Ancien" a c tai ban vao thang 3-1999, Editions de Ho Chi Minh Ville

b- mot ban anh ng c xuat ban nam 1999 tai An o:

Edition: MOTILAL BANARSIDASS, 41 U.A. Bugalow Road, Jawahar Nagar, DELHI 110 007

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Ba sau cua tap luan an

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[Xem bai tai lieu khac cua tac giaTran Tuan Man]

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Chan thanh cam n ao Hu Nguyen ao a gi tang bai viet nay.
(Quang Duc webiste)

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[oi net ve Hoa Thng Thien Chau]


Cap nhat ngay: 01-06-2001


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